Bacterial Growth in Arteries Implicated in Heart Attacks
Stress, biofilms, and cardiovascular disease
By Jacob Schor, ND, FABNO, and Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO
About the Authors
Jacob Schor ND, FABNO, is a graduate of National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland, Oregon, and now practices in Denver, Colorado. He served as president to the Colorado Association of Naturopathic Physicians and is on the board of directors of both the Oncology Association of Naturopathic Physicians and the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. He is recognized as a fellow by the American Board of Naturopathic Oncology. He serves on the editorial board for the International Journal of Naturopathic Medicine, Naturopathic Doctor News and Review (NDNR), and Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal. In 2008, he was awarded the Vis Award by the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. His writing appears regularly in NDNR, the Townsend Letter, and Natural Medicine Journal, where he is the Abstracts & Commentary editor.
Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, is a naturopathic physician with board certification in naturopathic oncology. She maintains a part-time naturopathic oncology practice with Naturopathic Specialists in Scottsdale, Arizona. Her undergraduate degree in medical anthropology is from Brown University and her naturopathic doctorate is from Bastyr University. She is the coauthor of The Definitive Guide to Cancer and The Definitive Guide to Thriving After Cancer. Alschuler is the chief medical officer of the iTHRIVE Plan.
The Theory: Norepinephrine Releases Iron, Inducing Sudden Biofilm Dispersion
If and when this theory becomes accepted, we will see a paradigm shift in our understanding of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. For those of us who like to stay ahead of the curve, this study is important.
- Janda JM, Abbott SL. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for bacterial identification in the diagnostic laboratory: pluses, perils, and pitfalls. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(9):2761-2764.
- Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 1999:284(5418):1318-1322.
- No authors listed. Phytoplankton. Academic. Available at: http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/32304. Accessed July 17, 2014.
- Bjarnsholt T. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections. APMIS Suppl. 2013;(136):1-51.
- Solano C, Echeverz M, Lasa I. Biofilm dispersion and quorum sensing. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014;18:96-104.
- Cheng HJ, Yang M, Wang CZ, Zhang CF, Chu CY. Effect of sodium houttuyfonate in enhancing imipenem's activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014;39(2):296-299.
- Bhardwaj AK, Vinothkumar K, Rajpara N. Bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors: attractive alternatives for control of infectious pathogens showing multiple drug resistance. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2013;8(1):68-83.
- Njoroge J, Sperandio V. Jamming bacterial communication: new approaches for the treatment of infectious diseases. EMBO Mol Med. 2009;1(4):201-210.
- Jakobsen TH, Bragason SK, Phipps RK, et al. Food as a source for quorum sensing inhibitors: iberin from horseradish revealed as a quorum sensing inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78(7):2410-2421.
- Duong HT, Jung K, Kutty SK, et al. Nanoparticle (star polymer) delivery of nitric oxide effectively negates Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Biomacromolecules. 2014 Jul 14;15(7):2583-2589.
- Lebeaux D, Chauhan A, Létoffé S, et al. pH-mediated potentiation of aminoglycosides kills bacterial persisters and eradicates in vivo biofilms. J Infect Dis. 2014 May 15. pii: jiu286. Epub ahead of print.
- Nascimento MM, Browngardt C, Xiaohui X, Klepac-Ceraj V, Paster BJ, Burne RA. The effect of arginine on oral biofilm communities. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2014;29(1):45-54.
- Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PØ, Rasmussen TB, et al. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Microbiology. 2005;151(Pt 12):3873-3880.
- Furiga A, Roques C, Badet C. Preventive effects of an original combination of grape seed polyphenols with amine fluoride on dental biofilm formation and oxidative damage by oral bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 2014;116(4):761-771.
- Xie Q, Johnson BR, Wenckus CS, Fayad MI, Wu CD. Efficacy of berberine, an antimicrobial plant alkaloid, as an endodontic irrigant against a mixed-culture biofilm in an in vitro tooth model. J Endod. 2012;38(8):1114-1117.
- Packiavathy IA, Priya S, Pandian SK, Ravi AV. Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin: an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa. Food Chem. 2014 Apr 1;148:453-460.
- Lee JH, Park JH, Cho HS, Joo SW, Cho MH, Lee J. Anti-biofilm activities of quercetin and tannic acid against Staphylococcus aureus. Biofouling. 2013;29(5):491-499.
- de Paula SB, Bartelli TF, Di Raimo V, et al. Effect of eugenol on cell surface hydrophobicity, adhesion, and biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis isolated from oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:505204.
- Magesh H, Kumar A, Alam A, et al. Identification of natural compounds which inhibit biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013;51(9):764-772.
- Marks LR, Davidson BA, Knight PR, Hakansson AP. Interkingdom signaling induces Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm dispersion and transition from asymptomatic colonization to disease. MBio. 2013;4(4) . pii: e00438-13.
- Tofler GH, Stone PH, Maclure M, et al. Analysis of possible triggers of acute myocardial infarction the MILIS study. Am J Cardiol. 1990;66(1):22-27.
- Leor J, Kloner RA. The Northridge earthquake as a trigger for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1996;77:1230-1232.
- Mittleman MA, Maclure M, Sherwood JB, et al. Triggering of acute myocardial infarction onset by episodes of anger. Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study Investigators. Circulation. 1995; 92(7):1720-1725.
- Möller J, Theorell T, de Faire U, Ahlbom A, Hallqvist J. Work related stressful life events and the risk of myocardial infarction. Case control and case-crossover analyses within the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP). J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59(1):23-30.
- Wortsman J, Frank S, Cryer PE. Adrenomedullary response to maximal stress in humans. Am J Med. 1984;77(5):779-784.
- Sandrini SM, Shergill R, Woodward J, et al. Elucidation of the mechanism by which catecholamine stress hormones liberate iron from the innate immune defense proteins transferrin and lactoferrin. J Bacteriol. 2010;192(2):587-594.
- Morita Y, Tomida J, Kawamura Y. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials. Front Microbiol. 2014 Jan 8;4:422.
- Iqbal MP, Mehboobali N, Tareen AK, et al. Association of body iron status with the risk of premature acute myocardial infarction in a Pakistani population. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67981.
- Steen DL, Cannon CP, Lele SS, et al. Prognostic evaluation of catalytic iron in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Clin Cardiol. 2013;36(3):139-145.
- Killip T 3rd, Kimball JT. Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit. A two year experience with 250 patients. Am J Cardiol. 1967;20(4):457-464.
- Holay MP, Choudhary AA, Suryawanshi SD. Serum ferritin—a novel risk factor in acute myocardial infarction. Indian Heart J. 2012;64(2):173-177.
- Rogers KC, Wallace JP, Foster SL, Finks SW. Annual influenza vaccination: offering protection beyond infection. South Med J. 2012;105(7):379-386.
- Bermúdez-Fajardo A, Oviedo-Orta E. Influenza vaccination promotes stable atherosclerotic plaques in apoE knockout mice. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217(1):97-105
- Derengowski Lda S, Pereira AL, Andrade AC, Kyaw CM, Silva-Pereira I. Propranolol inhibits Candida albicans adherence and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34(6):619-621.
- Quave CL, Plano LR, Pantuso T, Bennett BC. Effects of extracts from Italian medicinal plants on planktonic growth, biofilm formation and adherence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;118(3):418-428.