With the increasing popularity of CAM, policy makers and insurers invested in addressing the rising cost of healthcare should work to ensure that implementation of the Affordable Care Act proceeds as intended (inclusive of CAM providers).
The Economic Evaluation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Natural Health Products
The Cost of CAM Use by Insured Patients in Washington State
A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of CIM
1. Manheimer, B., Berman, B: Cochrane complementary medicine field. About The Cochrane Collaboration (Fields) 2008, Issue 2. Accessed on September 29th, 2012 at: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clabout/articles/CE000052/frame.html
2. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, Van Rompay M, Kessler RC: Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997. JAMA 1998, 280:1569-1515.
3. Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, et al. Unconventional medicine in the United States: prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. NEJM 1993;328:246–52.
4. Tindle HA, Davis RB, Phillips RS, Eisenberg DM: Trends in use of complementary and alternative medicine by US adults:1997-2002. Altern Ther Health Med 2005, 11:42-49.
5. Barnes PM, Powell-Griner E, McFann K, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Advance data from Vital and Health Statistics. Hyattsville, MA: National Center for Health Statistics, 2004.
6. Nahin RL, Barnes PM, Stussman BJ, et al. Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: United States, 2007. National Health.
7. National Center for Complementary and Alternative , 2010. Draft Strategic Plan. National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD.
8. Hawk C, Ndetan H, Evans MW. Potential role of complementary and alternative health care providers in disease prevention and health promotion: An analysis of National Health Interview Survey data. Prev Med 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.07.002
9. Astin JA: Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national survey. JAMA 1998; 279: 1548-1553.
10. Cauffield JS: The psychosocial aspects of complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacotherapy 2000, 20:1289-1294.
11. National Health Interview Survey. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults: United States, 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics. 2004 Accessed on 11-30-12 at http://www.hschange.com/CONTENT/722/#table1
12. Snapshot Health Care Costs 101: Californian HealthCare Foundation, 2006: 24.
13. The World Health Organization. Workbook 8: Economic Evaluations, 2000. Accessed at http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_5870_EN_8_economic_evaluations.pdf
on September 26, 2012.
14. The World Health Organization. Workbook 8: Economic Evaluations, 2000. Accessed at http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_5870_EN_8_economic_evaluations.pdf
on September 26, 2012.
15. Napper M, Newland J. Health Economics Information Resources: A Self-Study Course. Bethesda: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2003.
17. Ford E, Solomon D, Adams J, Graves N. The use of economic evaluation in CAM: an introductory framework. BMC Compl Alt Med 2010, 10: 66 – 75.
18. Napper, 2003.
19. Napper M, Newland J. Health Economics Information Resources: A Self-Study Course. Bethesda: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2003.
20. Ford E, Solomon D, Adams J, Graves N. The use of economic evaluation in CAM: an introductory framework. BMC Compl Alt Med 2010, 10: 66 – 75.
21. Herman P. Evaluating the Economics of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. Samueli Institute, 2012.
22. Washington State Legislature. Every category of health care provider. WAC 284-43-205. Accessed on September 24, 2012 at http://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=284-43-205
23. Revised Code of Washington. Olympia, WA: Washington State Law Committee. § 48.43.045; 1995.
24. Pioro-Boisset M, Esdaile JM, Fitzcharles MA. Alternative medicine use in fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Care Res Feb;1996 9(1):13–17.
25. Nicassio PMSC, Kim J, Cordova A, Weisman MH. Psychosocial factors associated with complementary treatment use in fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 1997;24:2008–2013.
26. Wahner-Roedler DL, Elkin PL, Vincent A, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies by patients referred to a fibromyalgia treatment program at a tertiary care center. Mayo Clin Proc Jan;2005 80(1):55–60.
27. Bombardier CHBD. Chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia: Disability and health-care use. Med Care September;1996 34(9):924–930.
28. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), Pub L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119. March 23, 2010.
29. Leading cause of death. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Accessed on 12-3-12 at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/heart.htm
30. Hawk, 2011.
31. Seely, Dugard. American Association of Naturopathic Physicians 2010 Convention Proceedings.
32. Herman PM, Szczurko O, Cooley K, Seely D. A naturopathic approach to the prevention of cardiovascular disease: A cost-effectiveness analysis of a pragmatic multi-worksite randomized clinical trial. (Pending publication)
33. D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2008; 117:743-53.
34. Greving JP, Buskins E, Koffijberg H, Algra A. Cost effectiveness of aspirin treatment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease events in subgroups based on age, gender and varying cardiovascular risk. Circulation 2008; 117: 2875 – 2883.
35. Franco OH, der Kinderen AJ, De Laet C, Peeters A, Bonneux L. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: cost-effectiveness comparison. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2007; 23(1): 71-79.
36. Herman WH, Hoerger TJ, Brandle M, etc. The Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification or Metformin in Preventing Type 2 Diabetes in Adults with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142(5): 323-332.
37. Downey L, Tyree PT, Lafferty WE. Preventive Screening of Women Who Use Complementary and Alternative Medicine Providers. J Women’s Health 2009. 18(8) 1133 – 1143.
38. Cheung CK, Wyman JF, Halcon LL. Use of complementary and alternative therapies in community-dwelling older adults. J Altern Complementary Med 2007; 13:997-1006.
39. Gray CM, Tan AW, Pronk NP, O’Connor PJ. Complementary and alternative medicine use among health plan members: A cross-sectional survey. Eff Clin Pract 2002; 5: 17-22.
40. Cheung 1997.
41. Koh HK, Sebelius KG. Promoting prevention through the Affordable Care Act. NEJM 2010.. 363, 1296–1299.
42. Herman PM, Szczurko O, Cooley K, Mills EJ. Cost-effectiveness of naturopathic care for chronic low back pain. Altern Ther Health Med 2008; 14(2): 32-39.
44. Wahner-Roedler DL, Elkin PL, Vincent A, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies by patients referred to a fibromyalgia treatment program at a tertiary care center. Mayo Clin Proc 2005; 80(1): 55-60.
45. Fitzcharles MA, Esdaile JM. Nonphysician practitioner treatments and fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol May;1997 24(5):937–940.
46. Dobkin PL, De Civita M, Bernatsky S, Kang H, Baron M. Does psychological vulnerability determine health-care utilization in fibromyalgia? Rheumatology (Oxford). Nov 2003;42(11):1324–1331.
47. Dobkin PL, De Civita M, Bernatsky S, Kang H, Baron M. Does psychological vulnerability determine health-care utilization in fibromyalgia? Rheumatology (Oxford). Nov 2003;42(11):1324–1331.
48. Bernard AL, Prince A, Edsall P. Quality of life issues for fibromyalgia patients. Arthritis Care Res Feb;2000 13(1):42–50.
49. Lind BK, Lafferty WE, Tyree PT, Diehr PK, Grembowski DE. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Providers by Fibromyalgia Patients Under Insurance Coverage. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 57(1): 71-76.
50. Lind, 2007.
51. Saito YA, Schoenfeld P, Locke GR III: The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome in North America: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2002, 97:1910-1915. 5.
52. Nyrop KA, Palsson OS, Levy RL, Von Korff M, Feld AD, Turner MJ, Whitehead WE: Costs of health care for Irritable Bowel Syn- drome, Chronic Constipation, Functional Abdominal Diarrhea, and Functional Abdominal Pain. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007, 26:237-248.
53. Van Tilburg MA, Palsson OS, Levy RL, Feld AD, Turner MJ, Drossman DA, Whitehead WE. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO. BMC Compl Alt Med 2008, 8:46-52.
54. Van Tilburg, 2008.
55. Kennedy DA, Hart J, Seely D. Cost effectiveness of natural health products: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. eCAM 2009; 6(3): 297-303.
56. Ipsos/Reid. Baseline Natural Health Products Survey Among Consumers: Health Canada, 2005: 85.
57. Senkal M, Zumtobel V, Bauer KH, Marpe B, Wolfram G, Frei A, et al. Outcome and cost effectiveness of perioperative enteral immunonutrition in patients undergoing elective upper gastrointestinal tract surgery: a prospective randomized study. Arch Surg 1999;134:1309–16. 19.
58. Gianotti L, Braga M, Frei A, Greiner R, Di Carlo V. Health care resources consumed to treat postoperative infections: cost saving by perioperative immunonutrition. Shock 2000;14:325–30. 20.
59. Smedley F, Bowling T, James M, Stokes E, Goodger C, O’Connor O, et al. Randomized clinical trial of the effects of preoperative and postoperative oral nutritional supplements on clinical course and cost of care. Br J Surg 2004;91:983–90.
60. Passmore AP, Wilson-Davies K, Stoker C, Scott ME. Chronic constipation in long stay elderly patients: a comparison of lactulose and a senna-fibre combination. Br Med J 1993;307:769–71.
61. Paterson C, Ewings P, Brazier JE, Britten N. Treating dyspepsia with acupuncture and homeopathy: reflections on a pilot study by researchers, practitioners and participants. Complement Ther Med 2003;11:78–84.
62. Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can J Urol 2002; 9:1558–62.
63. Davey PJ, Schulz M, Gliksman M, Dobson M, Aristides M, Stephens NG. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin E therapy in the treatment of patients with angiographically proven coronary narrowing (CHAOS trial). Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82:414–7. 22.
64. Franzosi MG, Brunetti M, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Tognoni G, Valagussa F. Cost-effectiveness analysis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after myocardial infarction: results from Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto (GISSI)-Prevenzione Trial. Pharmacoeconomics 2001;19:411–20.
65. Lind BK, Lafferty WE, Tyree PT, Diehr PK. Comparison of health care expenditures among insured users and nonusers of complementary and alternative medicine in Washington State: a cost minimization analysis. J Alt Complementary Med 2010; 16(4): 411-417.
66. Lind, 2010.
67. Herman PM, Poindexter BL, Witt CM, Eisenberg DM. Are complementary therapies and integrative care cost-effective? A systematic review of economic evaluations. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e001046. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001046.
68. van den Berg I, Kaandorp GC, Bosch JL, et al. Cost-effectiveness of breech version by acupuncture-type interventions on BL 67, including moxibustion, for women with a breech foetus at 33 weeks gestation: a modelling approach. Complement Ther Med 2010;18:67–77.
69. Ratcliffe J, Thomas KJ, MacPherson H, et al. A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture care for persistent low back pain: cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ 2006;333:626.
70. Korthals-de Bos IB, Hoving JL, van Tulder MW, et al. Cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:911.
71. Stevenson M, Lloyd-Jones M, Papaioannou D. Vitamin K to prevent fractures in older women: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2009;13:1–134.
72. Trevithick JR, Massel D, Robertson JM, et al. Modeling savings from prophylactic REACT antioxidant use among a cohort initially aged 50–55 years: a Canadian perspective. J Orthomolecular Med 2006;21:212–20.
73. Cooper RA. Weighing the evidence for expanding physician supply. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(9):705-714.
74. Petterson SM, Liaw WR, Phillips RL, Rabin DL, Meyers DS, Bazemore AW. Projecting US Primary Care Physician Workforce Needs: 2010-2023. Ann Fam Med 2012; 10(6): 503-509.
75. Chou CF, Johnson PJ, Ward A, Blewett LA. Health care coverage and the health care industry. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99 (12): 2282-2288.
76. Barton PL. Understanding the U.S. Health Services System. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press; 2007.
77. Sarnat RL, Winterstein J, Cambron JA. Clinical utilization and cost outcomes from an integrative medicine independent physician association: An additional 3-year update. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2007;30:263–269.
78. Hawk, 2011.
79. American Association of Naturopathic Physicians’ House of Delegates Position Paper, Amended 2011. Definition of Naturopathic Medicine. Accessed on 11-30-12 at http://naturopathic.org/content.asp?contentid=59
80. Koh HK, Sebelius KG. Promoting prevention through the Affordable Care Act. NEJM 2010; 363: 1296-1299.