August 24, 2016
Arnica Adulteration Bulletin Released by ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program
Sixth Bulletin published by the Program reviews arnica adulteration with focus on its substitution with so-called ‘Mexican arnica’
AUSTIN, Texas (August24, 2016) — The ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program announces the publication of a new Botanical Adulterants Bulletin (BAB) on arnica (Arnica montana).
Arnica extract is a popular ingredient in topical gels and ointments for the relief of bruises, sprains, and localized muscular pain, and is also widely used in cosmetic preparations. According to data from the market research firm SPINS, sales in all channels (excluding sales in Walmart, Whole Foods, club and dollar stores) of topical arnica products, sold predominantly as homeopathic remedies, exceeded $20 million in 2015.
Research has shown that some of the raw botanical materials labeled as “Arnica montana” contain so-called false arnica (Heterotheca inuloides), also known as Mexican arnica, or other yellow-flowering species from the family Asteraceae. The new Bulletin, co-authored by Wendy Applequist, PhD, associate curator at the William L. Brown Center at the Missouri Botanical Garden, and Stefan Gafner, PhD, chief science officer of the American Botanical Council, provides information on the cultivation, harvest, and market importance of arnica. It also lists the known adulterants, potential therapeutic and/or safety issues with the adulterating species, and analytical approaches to detect adulterants. Thirteen expert peer reviewers have provided input on the Arnica Bulletin.
The goal of the Botanical Adulterant Bulletins is to provide accounts of ongoing issues related to botanical identity and adulteration, thus allowing quality control personnel and lab technicians in the herbal medicine, botanical ingredient, dietary supplement, cosmetic, conventional food, and other industries where botanical ingredients are used to be informed on adulteration problems that are apparently widespread and/or that may imply safety concerns. As with all publications in the Program, the Bulletins are freely accessible to American Botanical Council (ABC) members and registered users on the Program’s website.
“Arnica is a widely used ingredient in topical products in the United States and internationally, including in the homeopathic medicine industry,” said Mark Blumenthal, founder and executive director of ABC and director of the ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program. “Our research suggests that it is possible that a considerable amount of the ‘arnica’ being used in some of these products may be adulterated with a totally different species. We hope that industry members will heed this Bulletin and double- and triple-check their incoming arnica raw materials to ensure that they are purchasing the authentic arnica plant.”
Stefan Gafner, PhD, who is also technical director of the Botanical Adulterants Program, explained: “The occurrence of arnica adulteration with Heterotheca inuloides has been known for over half a century, and is readily detected by macroscopic, microscopic, chemical, and/or DNA analysis. Nevertheless, reports as recent as 2012 show that arnica adulteration is still quite common in the marketplace. Some of this may be due to the use of the common name ‘arnica’ for a number of different plant species, particularly in Spanish-speaking communities. However, the comparatively high price for the authentic arnica raw material has also provided an incentive for economically motivated adulteration.”
The Arnica Bulletin is the sixth publication in the series of Botanical Adulterants Bulletins. The Bulletins on goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) root and rhizome and black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) root and rhizome were published in June 2016, preceded in April by the first three Bulletins on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) fruit extract, grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract, and skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) herb.
The American Botanical Council (ABC)-American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP)-National Center for Natural Products Research (NCNPR) Botanical Adulterants Program (BAP) is an international consortium of nonprofit professional organizations, analytical laboratories, industry trade associations, industry members, and other parties. The Program advises industry, researchers, health professionals, government agencies, the media, and the public about the various challenges related to adulterated botanical ingredients sold in commerce. To date, more than 175 US and international parties have financially supported or otherwise endorsed the Program.
The Botanical Adulterants Program plans to release additional Bulletins in the coming months. These include a Bulletin on St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) herb. In addition, the Program has just published an extensive article in ABC’s peer-reviewed journal HerbalGram on the history of ginseng (Panax spp.) taxonomy, nomenclature, and trade as basis for understanding ginseng adulteration. Another upcoming article will detail issues surrounding the authenticity of pomegranate products, specifically the undeclared addition of synthetic ellagic acid.
To date, the ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program has published six extensively peer-reviewed articles on the history of adulteration, the adulteration of the herbs black cohosh and skullcap, adulteration of bilberry fruit extract, the new report on ginseng, and the sale of synthetic antimicrobial compounds labeled to contain so-called “grapefruit seed extract.” In addition, the Program has published three Laboratory Guidance Documents reviewing and evaluating analytical methods to authenticate and detect adulteration of bilberry extract, black cohosh, and skullcap. The Program also publishes a quarterly e-newsletter, the Botanical Adulterants Monitor, that highlights new scientific publications related to botanical authenticity and analysis to detect possible adulteration, recent regulatory actions, and Program news. All of the Program’s publications are freely available on the Program’s website.