Cervical dysplasia refers to pre-cancerous changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix. While dysplasia can be caused by a number of factors, one common cause is the presence of one of the strains of Human Papilloma Virus, or HPV. Often times, the body will heal an HPV infection on its own and cervical cells go back to normal as the infection clears. In some cases, however, the grade of cervical dysplasia can worsen. Without treatment, advanced cervical dysplasia can progress to cervical cancer. In the U.S., Pap Smears have cut the incidence of cervical cancer in half over the past 40 years due to early detection. But approximately 40 percent of American women (and 45 percent of men) currently have some form of HPV, putting them at risk. Read more.